Prior to an elective surgical process, a detail pre-operative medical information orcheck-up by non-surgical consultants (e.g., internists, cardiologists, and pulmonologists) may be required to assess the surgical risk. These consultants can also help manage pre-existing conditions (e.g., diabetes) and help prevent and treat post-operative and perioperative complications (e.g., heart, lung, infectious). A psychiatric consultation may be necessary to assess the patient or to help manage underlying psychiatric disorders that may disrupt postoperative rehabilitation.
How it works?
If an emergency procedure is required (e.g., due to intra-abdominal hemorrhage, viscera perforations, necrotizing fasciitis), there is usually no time for a full pre-operative evaluation. However, the history of the patient’s must be studied as fast as possible to point out the facts that are responsible to increase the chances of the emergency surgery (e.g., history of bleeding or bleeding). Older patients are assisted by a multidisciplinary geriatric team, which may include social workers, therapists, clinical ethicists and others.
Prior to elective surgery, the surgical team consults an anesthesiologist to obtain a preoperative check-up in good standing by an internist that minimizes the risks by identifying corrective abnormalities. In addition, elective process must be delayed where it is possible so that the positive conditions (e.g., diabetes, hematologic and hypertension) can be optimally controlled.
Effective on pre-surgical fear
Surgery, regardless of its extent, is always an invasive and traumatic event for the patient. Among the responsibilities of the nurse there is the control and prevention of postoperative risks in which the patient may incur. But what are these risks? Let’s remember some of them together.
Pre-operative period: includes the whole phase preceding the operation, starting from the decision of the operation necessity and from the diagnostic tests to arrive at the transfer and positioning of the patient on the operating table.
Intraoperative period: includes the entire phase during which the patient is on the operating bed and ends with the surgical operation being exhausted.
Postoperative period: includes the whole phase from the end of the intervention up to the end of all the cures closely related to the intervention itself.
The nurse is the protagonist of assistance at all stages and ensures performance proportionate to the psychosocial and physical needs of each individual patient, aware of how much the patient pours his personal convictions on the event “surgical operation” and how much this can affect the trend of the entire route.
Nursing assistance, always supported by scientific rigor and by the force of the evidence, is molded and shaped according to the type of surgical procedure in question and, last but not least, according to the peculiar needs of the operative. Numerous and insidious are the risks that can materialize at the end of a surgical procedure, more or less close in time. The nurse knows them and puts into practice practices to prevent their occurrence. It is in this dimension that awareness and risk prevention are inserted in which the patient can incur in the postoperative period.